In material science, vitality is the quantitative property that must be moved to an article so as to perform chip away at, or to warm, the object. Energy is a moderated amount; the law of protection of vitality expresses that vitality can be changed over in structure, however not made or devastated. The SI unit of vitality is the joule, which is the vitality moved to an item by crafted by moving it a separation of 1 meter against a power of 1 newton.

Regular types of vitality incorporate the active vitality of a moving article, the potential vitality put away by an item's situation in a power field (gravitational, electric or attractive), the versatile vitality put away by extending strong articles, the compound vitality discharged when a fuel copies, the brilliant vitality conveyed by light, and the warm vitality because of an item's temperature.

Mass and vitality are firmly related. Because of mass–vitality equality, any article that has mass when stationary (called rest mass) likewise has a proportional measure of vitality whose structure is called rest vitality, and any extra vitality (of any structure) gained by the item over that rest vitality will expand the item's all out mass similarly as it builds its all out vitality. For instance, in the wake of warming an article, its expansion in vitality could be estimated as a little increment in mass, with a delicate enough scale.

Living beings expect vitality to remain alive, for example, the vitality people get from nourishment. Human progress expects vitality to work, which it gets from vitality assets, for example, non-renewable energy sources, atomic fuel, or sustainable power source. The procedures of Earth's atmosphere and biological system are driven by the brilliant vitality Earth gets from the sun and the geothermal vitality contained inside the earth.