Water Stores | Water Treatment & Reverse Osmosis Systems
A water treatment facility typically consists of several key components and processes that work together to purify and treat water. The specific configuration and equipment used can vary depending on the facility's scale, location, and the quality of the source water.
Here are the fundamental elements commonly found in a water treatment facility:
- Intake: The facility begins with an intake system that draws water from a natural source, such as a river, lake, or underground well. Screens or grates are often used to remove large debris and prevent clogging of the subsequent treatment processes.
- Coagulation and Flocculation: Chemicals such as aluminum sulfate (alum) or ferric chloride are added to the water to promote coagulation, where small suspended particles and impurities bind together to form larger particles called floc. Gentle mixing or stirring is applied to aid the process, known as flocculation.
- Sedimentation: In this step, the water is allowed to sit undisturbed, allowing the heavier floc particles to settle to the bottom of a sedimentation basin or clarifier. The settled particles form a sludge layer that can be removed later.
- Filtration: After sedimentation, the water passes through various filters to remove remaining suspended particles, floc, and other impurities. Common filter media include sand, gravel, activated carbon, and anthracite coal. Filtration can occur through rapid gravity filters, slow sand filters, or modern techniques like membrane filtration.
- Disinfection: To eliminate harmful microorganisms and prevent the spread of waterborne diseases, disinfection is applied. The most common disinfection method is chlorination, where chlorine or chlorine compounds are added to the water. Alternative methods include ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and ozonation.
- pH Adjustment: Depending on the water source and treatment requirements, pH adjustment may be necessary to achieve the desired pH level. Chemicals like lime or soda ash can be used to raise the pH, while sulfuric acid or carbon dioxide can be employed to lower it.
- Additional Treatment Processes: Depending on the specific needs of the water source, additional treatment processes may be incorporated. These can include advanced filtration methods like reverse osmosis or activated carbon adsorption, as well as specific treatments for removal of specific contaminants such as iron, manganese, arsenic, or nitrates.
- Storage and Distribution: Once the water has undergone the necessary treatment processes, it is typically stored in clear water reservoirs or tanks before being distributed to consumers through a network of pipes.
It's important to note that the sequence and specific processes involved can vary depending on the type of water source (surface water, groundwater, or reclaimed water) and the specific contaminants or impurities that need to be removed to meet regulatory standards and ensure safe drinking water supply.
Key Elements Found in a Water Treatment Storage Facility
A water treatment storage facility is an essential component of a water treatment system, providing a place to store treated water before it is distributed to consumers. The storage facility helps maintain a consistent and reliable water supply, especially during periods of high demand or interruptions in treatment processes. Here are the key elements typically found in a water treatment storage facility:
- Storage Tanks or Reservoirs: These are large containers designed to hold treated water. They can vary in size and shape, depending on the needs of the water treatment system and the local demand. Storage tanks can be constructed from materials such as concrete, steel, or fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and are often located at elevated positions to ensure sufficient water pressure for distribution.
- Inlet and Outlet Structures: The storage tanks have dedicated inlet and outlet structures. The inlet structure connects to the treated water supply from the water treatment plant. It may include flow control devices, valves, and screens to regulate the flow of water into the storage tank and remove any debris or large particles. The outlet structure is connected to the distribution system and typically includes valves and pipes for controlled release of water.
- Overflow and Drainage Systems: To prevent overfilling, storage tanks are equipped with overflow outlets that direct excess water safely away from the facility. These outlets are designed to handle high flow rates during heavy rainfall or other situations when the storage capacity is exceeded. Drainage systems are also in place to remove accumulated water from the tank or reservoir, allowing for maintenance, cleaning, and inspection.
- Monitoring and Control Systems: Water storage facilities often incorporate monitoring and control systems to ensure efficient operation and water quality. This can include level sensors or gauges to measure water levels in the tanks, pressure sensors to monitor the distribution system, and telemetry systems for remote monitoring and data collection. Automation systems may be employed to control the filling, emptying, and circulation of water in the storage facility.
- Security and Safety Measures: Water storage facilities are equipped with security measures to prevent unauthorized access or tampering, ensuring the safety and integrity of the water supply. This may involve fencing, locked gates, security cameras, alarms, and appropriate signage. Safety features such as ladders, walkways, and safety equipment are also provided for maintenance and emergency situations.
It's important for water treatment storage facilities to be well-maintained, regularly inspected, and operated in accordance with relevant regulations and guidelines to ensure the stored water remains clean, safe, and suitable for distribution to consumers.
For more information please view/download the industry brochure