The country is well drained with a close network of rivers and streams. Some of these, particularly the smaller ones in the north, are seasonal. There are four principal surface water basins in Nigeria:
• The Niger Basin has an area of 584,193 km2 within the country, which is 63 percent of the total area of the country, and covers a large area in central and northwestern Nigeria. The most important rivers in the basin are the Niger and its tributaries Benue, Sokoto, and Kaduna.
• The Lake Chad Basin in the northeast with an area of 179,282 km2, or 20 percent of the total area of the country, is the only internal drainage basin in Nigeria. Important rivers are the Komadougou Yobe and its tributaries Hadejia, Jama’are, and Komadougou Gena.
• The southwestern littoral basins have an area of 101,802 km2, which is 11 percent of the total area of the country. The rivers originate in the hilly areas to the south and west of the Niger River.
• The southeastern littoral basins, with the major watercourses being the Cross and Imo Rivers, have an area of 58,493 km2, which is six percent of the total area of the country, and receive much of their runoff from the plateau and mountain areas along the Cameroon border.
Nigeria has extensive groundwater resources, located in eight recognized hydrogeological areas together with local groundwater in shallow alluvial (fadama) aquifers adjacent to major rivers:
• The Sokoto Basin Zone comprises sedimentary rocks in northwest Nigeria. Yields range from below 1.0 to 5.0 liter per second (L/s).
• The Chad Basin Zone comprises sedimentary rocks. There are three distinct aquifer zones: Upper, Middle, Lower. Borehole yields are about 1.2 to 1.6 L/s from the Upper unconfined aquifer and 1.5 to 2.1 L/s from the Middle aquifer.
• The Middle Niger Basin Zone comprises sandstone aquifers yielding between 0.7 and 5.0 L/s and the Alluvium in the Niger Valley yielding between 7.5 and 37.0 L/s.
• The Benue Basin Zone is the least exploited basin in Nigeria extending from the Cameroon border to the Niger-Benue confluence. The sandstone aquifers in the area yield between 1.0 and 8.0 L/s.
• The Southwestern Zone comprises sedimentary rocks bounded in the south by the coastal Alluvium and in the north by the Basement Complex.
• The South-Central Zone is made up of Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments centred on the Niger Delta. Yields are from 3.0 to 7.0 L/s.
• The Southeastern Zone comprises Cretaceous sediments in the Anambra and Cross River basins. Borehole numbers are low due to abundant surface water resources.
• The Basement Complex comprises over 60 percent of the country’s area. It consists of low permeability rocks and groundwater occurs in the weathered mantle and fracture zones with yields of between 1.0 and 2.0 L/s.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua is one of the leading water treatment plant suppliers in Nigeria, with our systems being customized based on the country's water issues.
Nigeria's main water resources are:
- Surface water is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Brackish Water RO.
- Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Seawater Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems.
- Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Chemical Dosing, UV Water Sterilizer.
- Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softener System, Media Water Filters.
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment machines in Nigeria that meet the World Health Organization requirements.