Industrial Activated Carbon Water Filters or filtration of water is a process used to remove chlorine, foul taste; odor and color by using an activated carbon media bed either from select grades of bituminous coal or coconut-shell coal and produced into high density granular form. Activated Carbon Media is available in different sizes (mesh), examples: 12 x 40 or 8 x 30. When we decide that there is a need for an Industrial Activated Carbon Water Filters, it's essential to know the water source. In the event that it's city or well water from a trusted source, we can expect that there is a minimal amount of turbidity and we can use a 12 x 40 mesh AC media. In the event that the water source has high turbidity, or from a river or lake, in these cases we see the use of 8 x 30 mesh is a better choice.
The Industrial Activated Carbon Water Filters (ACF) system just like any media filters is composed of mineral tank (FRP or Steel), Valve controllers (Top or Side mounted) or Face-piping with Controllers (Digital Stagers or PLC), media (Gravel and Activated Carbon). ACF are available in different flow rate capacity and media volume. It can be configured to run as a single stand-alone unit or multiple-tanks which is running altogether or in sequence depending on the application. Smaller-sized units can have valve controllers like (Fleck® or Clack®) while medium-sized units can have air or electric actuated diaphragm valves (Aquamatic®) which are controlled by a Digital Stager.
Larger-units are normally designed with electrically-powered Butterfly valves and have PLC (Siemens® or Allen-Bradley®) as the main controller. It practically have a service flow rate of (5 GPM/ft2) for ordinary odor, taste and chlorine loads and a minimum backwash rate of (10-12 GPM/ft2) to make sure that it is running in optimum conditions and prolong the life of the media. The media in the carbon filter tank should only have a maximum of 50% depth level to allow the activated carbon media to expand by (30%-40%) during the backwash mode. The carbon bed should be replaced when the effectiveness to take out the contaminants are completely exhausted.
Industrial water filters that use activated carbon (or charcoal) is used as pre-treatment to RO systems as RO Membranes cannot have any trace of chlorine in the feed water. Chlorine chemically attacks the Thin Film Composite (TFC) membranes and over time results to degradation and develop holes where salt passes thru and blends with the permeate resulting to poor quality of product water.
An ACF system can be used as direct water filtration to deal with offensive odor, taste and excessive chlorine from the supply for potable water applications or it can be used as a pre-treatment for equipment or process that needs lower levels of the mentioned water contaminants such as reverse osmosis systems. This system are normally used in Industrial plants, Municipal treatment facilities or Commercial establishments who needs better quality of water coming from the city supply. They can also be used into the waste water treatment and handle high Total Organic Compounds (TOC) from the water being treated.
There are 2 types of Activated Carbon in the market (Bituminous Coal-based and Coconut Shell-based) and both of them have their advantages over the other. The coal-based activated carbon is best suited for treating surface water which has high total organic compounds (TOC), water with high color content, waste water treatment and removal of bulky organic compounds from the water. The coconut shell-based will be best suited for trace-level organics removal due to higher surface area size. This is also tends to be harder, durable to abrasion and has lower ash content compared to the coal-based carbon.
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