Techniques for water purification that serve the reduction pollutants after they have formed.End-of-pipe technologies are important to preserving the safety of the environment due to their ability in drastically reducing the emission of substances from entering the atmosphere. The end-of-pipe solution model works by controlling pollution by restoring the air flows of contaminants before the effluent reaches the environment. End-of-pipe techniques were first established during the 1960’s and continue to advance in their practicability in disallowing the releasement of pollutants with cost-effectiveness and reasonable energy consumption.