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Water Terminology

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Water is a fundamental resource to human life and impacts the world by the way it is utilized and managed. The composition of our water management pursuits and convoluted  water laws makes conversation efforts much more difficult. This comprehensive list offers users technical and nontechnical water terminology which display the many concepts that represent water use.  
 
The purpose of this section is to provide users with the correct definition of the most important water terminology in the industry. Users can refer to our water terminology section for descriptions of various terms across our website. 
 
 

ABSOLUTE Filtration

It represents the micron rating of a filter and it indicates that any particle larger than a specific size will be trapped within the filter. An absolute water filter is considered to be over 95%...Read more about absolute filtration

ABSORPTION

Absorption occurs when a solid takes up molecules into its structure. In other words, the absorption process sees the passage of one substance into or through the entirety of another channel. The process of absorption means that a substance captures and transforms energy...Read more about absorption

ACID AEROSOL

Very small liquid or solid particles that are acidic and are small enough to become airborne. Acid aerosol consists of highly rich sulfur particles that leaves the stratosphere of the earth’s atmosphere and have the proportions of a millionth of a meter in diameter...Read more about acid aerosol

ACID NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY

Acid neutralizing capacity is the measurement of the buffering capacity of water; the ability of water to resist changes in pH...Read more about acid neutralizing capacity

ACID RAIN

Rain that has a flamboyantly low pH, due to contact with atmospheric pollutants such as sulphuric oxides. Atmospheric pollutants are caused by human activities such as burning fossil fuels that emit gases which combine with water vapors, oxygen, and other chemicals...Read more about acid rain

ACID WATER

When pH is less than 7. pH is the scale of the acidic water that ranges from 0 to 14. Anything below 7 is considered acidic water and vice-versa means it is alkaline. Water becomes acidic during the hydrologic cycle, when water begins evaporating and produces clouds and form moisture that results in precipitation throughout the earth...Read more about acid water

Acidicity

The quantitative capacity of water to neutralize a base expressed in ppm or mg/L calcium carbonate equivalent. The number of hydrogen atoms that are present determines this. It is usually measured by titration with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide...Read more about acidicity

ACTIVATED CARBON

This is the most commonly used adsorption medium, produced by heating carbonaceous substances or cellulose bases in the absence of air. It has a very porous structure and is commonly used to remove organic matter and dissolved gases from water...Read more about activated carbon

ACTIVATED SLUDGE

Activated sludge is a solid/soft matter utilized for eradicating contaminants from wastewater by a biological response that includes oxygen. The activated sludge is simultaneously parted from the treated effluent and discharged from or brought back to the processes when needed...Read more about activated sludge

ACTIVE GROUPS

Really fixed ions bolted on to the matrix of an ion exchanger. The active groups in the periodic table of elements must maintain a counter-ion of the opposite charge around itself. The most active (reactive) metals in the active groups are located near the lowermost left corner of the periodic table...Read more about active groups

ADSORPTION

The process of adsorption sees the separation of liquids, gases, colloids or suspended matter from a medium by adherence to the surface or pores of a solid. So in essence, the molecules of these elements will stick to the surface of a solid or liquid, rather than entering it....Read more about adsorption

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

One of several combination oxidation processes. Advanced chemical oxidation processes use (chemical) oxidants to reduce COD/BOD levels, and to remove both organic and oxidizable inorganic components...Read more about advanced oxidation process

ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Advanced wastewater treatment is categorized as the purification of sewage water that includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids...Read more about advanced oxidation process

ADVANCED WATER TREATMENT

Advanced water treatment pertains to the level of water treatment that requires a high percentage reduction in pollutant concentration, also known as tertiary treatment. This process allows for the safe return of water to the environment and further treated to be suitable for consumption.Read more about advanced water treatment

AERATED LAGOON

A water treatment pond that speeds up biological decomposition of organic waste by stimulating the growth and activity of bacteria, which are responsible for the degradation. Bacteria that reside in water sources that contain excrements require dissolved oxygen.Read more about aerated lagoon

AERATION TANK

A tank that is used to inject air into water. Aeration tanks are mainly used industrial wastewater treatment and minicpals as part of a secondary treatment process. Aeration tanks work in delivering oxygen throughout bacterial organisms for treatment and sustaining the wastewater...Read more about aeration tank

AEROBIC

A process that takes place in the presence of oxygen, such as the digestion of organic matter by bacteria in an oxidation pond. As organic substances diminish when exposed to oxygen, the process of aerobic takes place...Read more about aerobic

AEROSOL

Very small liquid or solid particles dispersed in air. The ocean waves which produce sea salts, wind that blows mineral dust, and biogenic emission are all some of the most common natural sources of aerosol...Read more about aerosol

AFFINITY

The keenness with which an ion exchanger takes up and holds on to a counter-ion. Affinities are very much affected by the concentration of the electrolyte surrounding the ion exchanger...Read more about affinity

AGGLOMERATION

Agglomeration is the method of bringing smaller particles together to form a larger mass. This process prevents the entire compounds of particles from dissolving by solidifying a strong center...Read more about agglomeration

AGGRESSIVE WATER

Aggressive water is soft and acidic and can corrode plumbing, pipes, and appliances. This kind of water usually contains an inordinate amount of carbon dioxide deposits...Read more about aggressive water

ALGAL BLOOMS

Periods of enlarged algal growths that affect water quality. Algal blooms indicate potentially hazardous changes in the chemistry of water. They can be perceived through the color of the water, which is usually a blue-green color that is made up of bacteria...Read more about algal blooms

ALIQUOT

A measured portion of a sample taken for analysis. One or more aliquots make up a sample. In the field of chemistry, aliquot are considered the precise portion of samples or even the overall quantity of a liquid...Read more about aliquot

ALKALINITY

Alkalinity means the buffering capacity of water; the capacity of the water to neutralize itself. It prevents the water pH levels from becoming too basic or acid. It also adds carbon to water. Alkalinity stabilizes water at pH levels around 7...Read more about alkalinity

ALLUVIUM

Alluvium are sediments deposited by erosion processes, usually by streams. They are generally formed in an extensive process throughout the shallow end of rivers and create delta floodplain...Read more about alluvium

ANAEROBIC

Anaerobic is a process that takes place in the absence of oxygen, such as the digestion of organic matter by bacteria in a UASB-reactor. Anaerobic treatment works by breaking down unwanted organic substances in wastewater or materials without required dissolved oxygen...Read more about anaerobic

ANION

A negatively charged ion that results from the dissociation of salts, acids or alkali's in solution. Anions are formed when the common parent brings in one or more electrons into its sphere for the purposes of finalizing its octet and attaining constancy...Read more about anion

ANODE

A site in electrolysis where metal goes into solution as a cation leaving behind an equivalent of electrons to be transferred to an opposite electrode called a cathode. Anodes routinely possess positive voltage and are responsible for eroding metal from electrodes through chemically oxidizing anions...Read more about anode

AQUATIC

Growing in water, living in water, or frequenting water. Aquatic is categorized in biological terminology as a freshwater ecosystem which in general incorporates land water systems and salt lakes...Read more about aquatic

AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY

The maximum concentration of a chemical that dissolves in a given amount of water. Aqueous solubility describes the neutral point where a solid, liquid or gas is at a specific pressure or temperature...Read more about aqueous solubility

AQUEOUS

Something made up of water. Aqueous compounds are sometimes soluble in water and other times are not. The formation of an aqueous solution arises when a compound dissolves in water. In the off-chance that the compound does not dissolve then it becomes a solid precipitate...Read more about aqueous

AQUIFER

Aquifers are considered geological configurations in the form of rocks, soil, and sand within underground water sources. As groundwater moves throughout these small openings (spaces, cracks), it becomes stored in the aquifers...Read more about aquifer

AROMATICS

Aromatics are a type of hydrocarbon that contains a ring structure, such as benzene and toluene. They can be found for instance in gasoline and are capable of burning with sooty flames...Read more about aromatics

ASSIMILATION

Assimilation is the ability of water to purify itself of pollutants. Certain events make the process of assimilation more difficult to work. Natural disasters such as droughts or floods can produce water and soil contamination through discharging a high concentration of pollutants within wastewater...Read more about assimilation

ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY

The capacity of natural water to receive wastewaters or toxic materials without negative effects and without damage to aquatic life or humans who consume the water...Read more about assimilative capacity

ATOM

The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element. They are the ultimate building blocks for all matter and made up of three specific particles referred to as electrons, neutrons and protons...Read more about atom

ATOMIC NUMBER

A specific number that differs for each element, equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of each of its atoms. So in essence, the atomic number equals the number of protons that an atom has which defines what type of an atom it is...Read more about atomic number

ATTENUATION

The process of reduction of a compound's concentration over time. This can be through absorption, adsorption, degradation, dilution or transformation. In other words, attenuation is what leads to the decreasing intensity of energy as it passes through a medium...Read more about attenuation

ATTRITION

A measure of the amount of chlorine available in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials...Read more about attrition

AVAILABLE CHLORINE

A measure of the amount of chlorine available in chlorinated lime, hypochlorite compounds, and other materials. Available chlorine is considered the type of substance that relents when purified with acid in the attendance of chlorides...Read more about available chlorine

BACK PRESSURE

Pressure that can cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user's wastewater system is at a higher pressure than the public system. The resistance to the fluid by the public system creates back pressure which creates backflow through sending the water in the reverse direction...Read more about back pressure

BACK SIPHONAGE

Reverse seepage of water in a distribution system. The process of backsiphonage arises when there is negative pressure is some sort of obstruction or draining in the water distribution lines as a result of breaks or repairs...Read more about back siphonage

BACKFLOW

The flow of water in a medium in a direction opposite to normal flow. Flow is often returned into the system by backflow if the wastewater in a purification system is severely contaminated...Read more about backflow

BACKWASHING

The process of backwashing works by reversing the flow of water back through the filter media to remove entrapped solids. This sequence is done through the use of tanks (backwash filters) which have filtration media that is needed for the water treatment...Read more about backwashing

BACTERIA

Microscopically small single-cell organisms, that reproduce by fission of spores. Ridding your water supplies from the presence of bacteria is vital to preserving the health of any person exposed to these fluids...Read more about bacteria

BASE

An alkaline substance that has a pH higher than 7. Bases are defined by chemists as a water solution within any chemical compound that consists of a lower degree of hydrogen ion concentration than clean water...Read more about base

BED LOAD

Sediment particles resting on or near the channel bottom that are pushed or rolled along by the flow of water. The sediment particles reach the channel bottom by being carried along the bed in a flowing fluid...Read more about bed load

BENTHIC ZONE

The lower region of a body of water including the bottom. The organisms that live in the benthic zones within water sources such as ocean and lakes are called benthos...Read more about benthic zone

BICARBONATES

Salts containing the anion HCO3-. When acid is added, this ion breaks into H2O and CO2, and acts as a buffer. For this reason, bicarbonates represent an important component in the human body...Read more about bicarbonates

BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

The amount of oxygen (measured in mg/L) that is required for the decomposition of organic matter by single-cell organisms, under test conditions. It is used to measure the amount of organic contamination wastewater...Read more about biochemical oxygen demand bod

BIOCIDE

A chemical that is toxic to microorganisms. Biocides are often used to eliminate bacteria and other single-cell organisms from water. Without the usage of biocides, microbial growth can become unmanageable and produce severe health concerns...Read more about biocide

BIODEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS

Pollutants that are capable of decomposing under natural conditions. Biodegradable contaminants are capable of being deteriorated into organic substances that are environmentally safe for long periods of time...Read more about biodegradable pollutants

BIOFILM

Population of various microorganisms, trapped in a layer of slime and excretion products, attached to a surface. Bacteria is one of the most common microorganisms and creates several colonies when it becomes fixed to a surface...Read more about biofilm

BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS

Living organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens that can cause harmful health effects to humans...Read more about biological contaminants

BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION

Decomposition of complex organic materials by microorganisms through oxidation. Biological oxidation has been understood by scientists to perform on the basis of biochemistry and all of its nuances...Read more about biological oxidation

BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVATED CARBON

Activated carbon that supports active microbial growth, in order to aid in the degradation of organics that have been absorbed on its surface and in its pores...Read more about biologically activated carbon

BIOMONITORING

The use of living organisms to test the suitability of effluents for discharge into receiving waters and to test the quality of such waters downstream from the discharge...Read more about biomonitoring

BIOREMEDIATION

Bioremediation is the biological treatment of wastewater and sludge, by inducing the breakdown of organics and hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water...Read more about bioremediation

BIOTA

All living organisms in a region or ecosystem. Biotic components can be categorized as beings such as biological organisms, plant life, and animals...Read more about biota

BIOTRANSFORMATION

Conversion of a substance into other compounds by organisms; including biodegradation...Read more about biotransformation

BLACKWATER

Water that contains waste of humans, animals or food. Black water causes detrimental effects to the environment, more so than any other type of contaminated water...Read more about blackwater

BLINDING

Blinding occurs as a build-up of particles in a filter medium, that prevents fluids from flowing through...Read more about blinding

BOD5

Biological Oxygen Demand is the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by bacteria that perform biological degradation of organic matter...Read more about biochemical oxygen demand bod

BOILING POINT

The temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of its surface. The liquid will then vaporize If the pressure of the liquid varies, the actual boiling point varies...Read more about boiling point

BOTTLED WATER

Water that is sold in plastic containers for drinking water and/ or domestic use, and it can be treated using high brackish reverse osmosis...Read more about bottled water

BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION

Addition of chlorine to water until there is enough chlorine present for disinfection of water. Breakpoint chlorination is defined as the stage ...Read more about breakpoint chlorination

BREAKTHROUGH

Crack or break in a filter bed that allows the passage of floc or particulate matter through a filter. The breakthrough process is extremely detrimental due to producing issues of rising filtration liquid waste turbidity...Read more about breakthrough

BRINE

Highly salty and heavily mineralised water, containing heavy metal and organic contaminants. Brine water is heavily consistent with sodium chloride and usually is found in seawater or salty lakes that possess high concentrations of salt compounds...Read more about brine

BUFFER

A substance that reacts with hydrogen or hydroxyl ions in a solution, in order to prevent a change in pH...Read more about buffer

CAKE

Solid dewatered residue on a filter media after filtration. Cake washing has numerous effects on the performance of a specific process such as products...Read more about cake

CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE

A chemical that is widely used for water disinfection, for instance in swimming pools or water purification plants. It is especially useful because it is a stable dry powder and can be made into tablets...Read more about calcium hypochlorite

CANDLE FILTER

Candle filters are relatively coarse aperture filters, designed to retain a coat of filter medium on an extended surface. These filters can be produced from clay and utilized to filter consumable water for the purposes of eliminating suspended solids, pathogens, and turbidity...Read more about candle filter

CAPILLARY ACTION

Water that at some point rises higher than that portion of its surface, not in contact with the solid surface. This is due to adhesion, cohesion and surface tension where later touches a solid...Read more about capillary action

CAPILLARY ZONE

Soil area above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. The capillary zone can be seen right above the water-table, where the water may be continued upwards as a result of capillary action...Read more about capillary zone

CAPILLARY MEMBRANES

Membranes about the thickness of a human hair, used for Reverse Osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration. These membranes are featured with small diameters that make for wide surfaces and great density for packing in every membrane module...Read more about capillary membranes

CARBONATE HARDNESS

Hardness of water caused by carbonate and bicarbonate by-products of calcium and magnesium. Carbonate hardness is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium present in water...Read more about carbonate hardness

CARBONATES

Chemical compounds related to carbon dioxide. In nature, carbon atoms join with oxygen to form the carbonate ion, CO3. When carbonates are mixed with metal cations to create carbonate minerals...Read more about carbonates

CARCINOGEN

Any dissolved pollutant that can induce cancer. A carcinogen is a substance that comprises pollutants which can cause cancer in the tissues of living beings...Read more about carcinogen

CARTRIDGE FILTER

Disposable filter device that has a filter range of 0.1 micron to 100 microns. Cartridge filters are incredibly efficient in removing metals, organic substances, sediments and particles when installed and utilized correctly...Read more about cartridge filter

CATALYSES

Chemical that increases the rate of a reaction but does not take a direct part in the reaction, so that it is still intact after the reaction has taken place...Read more about catalyses

CATCH BASIN

A sedimentation area designed to remove pollutants from runoff before being discharged into a stream or pond...Read more about catch basin

CATHODE

A site in electrolysis where cations in solution are neutralized by electrons that plate out on the surface or produce a secondary reaction with water...Read more about cathode

CATION

A positively charged ion, resulting from dissociation of molecules in solution. Ions are categorized as single or multiple elements that contain a charge, which when in cation form is constituted by some kind of compound formula or element symbol...Read more about cation

CENTRIFUGATION

A separation process, which uses the action of centrifugal force to promote accelerated settling of particles in a solid-liquid mixture...Read more about centrifugation

CFU

Colony Forming Units. This is a measure that indicates the number of microorganisms in water. The colony forming units usually make up of bacteria and are of the same organisms that grow together...Read more about cfu

CHECK VALVE

A valve that allows water to stream in one direction and will then close to prevent development of a back-flow. Check valves function on flow sensitivity in order to propel opening or closing...Read more about check valve

CHELATING AGENTS

Chelating agents are organic compounds that have the ability to draw ions from their water solutions into soluble complexes...Read more about chelating agents

CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)

The amount of oxygen (measured in mg/L) that is consumed in the oxidation of organic and oxidasable inorganic matter, under test conditions...Read more about chemical oxygen demand cod

CHEMICAL POLLUTION

Introduction of chemical contaminants into a water body. Water pollution occurs when undesirable foreign substances are introduced into natural water...Read more about chemical pollution

CHEMICAL WEATHERING

Dissolving of rock by exposure to rainwater, surface water, oxygen, and other gases in the atmosphere, and compounds secreted by organisms...Read more about chemical weathering

CHLORAMINES

A chemical complex that consists of chlorine and ammonia. It serves as a water disinfectant in public water supplies in place of chlorine because chlorine can combine with organics to form dangerous reaction products...Read more about chloramines

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

Hydrocarbons that contain chlorine. These include a class of persistent insecticides that accumulate in the aquatic food chain...Read more about chlorinated hydrocarbons

CHLORINATED SOLVENT

An organic solvent containing chlorine atoms that is often used as aerosol spray container, in highway paint, and dry cleaning fluids...Read more about chlorinated solvent

CHLORINATION

A water purification process in which chlorine is added to water for disinfection, for the control of present microorganisms. It is also used in the oxidation of compound impurities in water...Read more about chlorination

CHLORINE-CONTACT CHAMBER

The part of a water treatment plant where effluent is disinfected by chlorine. The Chlorine Contact Chamber is the last treatment process when it is required before the water is released into the water supply...Read more about chlorine contact chamber

CLARITY

The clearness of a liquid. Clarity is an essential process that produces clear and transparent water through freeing visible contaminants...Read more about clarity

COAGULATION

Destabilisation of colloid particles by addition of a reactive chemical, called a coagulant. This happens through neutralization of the charges...Read more about coagulation

COALESCENCE

Liquid particles in suspension that unite to create particles of a greater volume. Coalescence is a process that works by removing particles from water or gas streams...Read more about coalescence

COASTAL ZONE

Lands and waters near the coast, whose uses and ecology are affected by the sea. Coastal zones represent the interfaces between water and land, which is important since most of the world’s population live in these zones...Read more about coastal zone

COLIFORM BACTERIA

Bacteria that serve as indicators of pollution and pathogens when found in water. These are usually found in the intestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals...Read more about coliform bacteria

COLIFORM INDEX

A rating of the purity of water based on a count of coliform bacteria. Coliform bacteria are tiny biological organisms that are sourced from the intestines of humans or animals...Read more about coliform index

COLLECTOR SEWERS

Pipes to collect and carry wastewater from individual sources to an interceptor sewer that will carry it to a treatment facility. Collector sewers are a part of multi-tiered wastewater...Read more about collector sewers

COLLOIDS

Matter of very small particle size, in the range of 10-5 to 10-7 in diameter. Colloids represents mixtures of particles that are capable of remaining evenly distributed throughout a solution.

COMBINED SEWER

A sewer system that carries both sewage and rainwater runoff. Combined sewers are generally referred to as a collection system of sewage tunnels and pipes that are made to concurrently accumulate surface runoff and dirty water in a shared system...Read more about combined sewer

COMPOSITE SAMPLE

A series of water samples taken over a given period of time and weighted by flow rate. Composite samples of water that accumulate, store, examine, and weight over a long period of time are useful in delivering a legitimate indication of treatment plant performance...Read more about composite sample

COMPOUNDS

Two or more different elements held together in fixed proportions by attractive forces called chemical bonds. The compounds are substances created when multiple chemical elements are chemically held together...Read more about compounds

CONCENTRATION PROCESS

The process of increasing the number of particles per unit volume of a solution, usually by evaporating the liquid. The concentration process relies on a pressure gradient over a membrane, which disallows the analyte molecules...Read more about concentration process

CONCENTRATION

The amount of material dissolved in a unit of solution, expressed in mg/L. A solution could be a combination of multiple substances that's of an equivalent composition throughout. The primary substance could be a solvent,...Read more about concentration

CONDENSATION

The change of state from a gas to a liquid. Condensation works by turning the water vapour within the air into a modification of liquid water. In other words, the water within the air, a gas called water vapour,...Read more about condensation

CONDUCTIVITY

The amount of electricity the water can conduct. It is expressed in a chemical magnitude. Please also use our information about TDS and conductivity. Conductivity makes reference to a substance's ability to hold an electrical current...Read more about conductivity

CONDUIT

A natural or artificial channel through which fluids may be transported. Conduits can range from tubes, ducts, or pipes that totally fill up with flowing fluids...Read more about conduit

CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE

Water removed from available supplies without return to a water resources system; water used in manufacturing, agriculture, and food preparation. Consumptive water use is viewed as any kind of water use that accumulates water from a water source...Read more about consumptive water use

CONTACT TIME

The length of time a substance is in contact with a liquid, before it is removed by filtration or the occurrence of a chemical change. The most prevalent industry application is to ensure that the surface is kept visibly...Read more about contact time

CONTAMINANT

Any foreign component in a substance, for example in water. These contaminants are sometimes occurring in natural environments or human created ones. Some forms of chemical contaminants consist...Read more about contaminant

CONVENTIONAL SEWER SYSTEMS

Systems that were traditionally used to collect municipal wastewater in gravity sewers and convey it to a central primary or secondary treatment plant, before discharge on receiving surface waters...Read more about conventional sewer systems

CONVEYANCE LOSS

Water loss in pipes and channels by leakage or evaporation. Conveyance loss is often categorized as water that is gone due to ditches, pipes or canals due to evaporation or leakages...Read more about conveyance loss

COOLING TOWER

Large towers used to transfer the heat in cooling water from a power or industrial plant to the atmosphere either by direct evaporation or by convection and conduction. Cooling towers can be extremely productive and quality products...Read more about cooling tower

CORROSIVITY

Ability of water to dissolve or break down certain substances, particularly metals. Corrosive water, is also water that is referred to as aggressive and able to breakdown substances that are exposed to it...Read more about corrosivity

CROSS FLOW FILTRATION

A process that uses opposite flows across a membrane surface to minimize particle build-up. Cross flow filtration occurs when there is an indirect application of flow across the surface of the membrane...Read more about cross flow filtration

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

A microorganism in water that causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is commonly found in untreated surface water and can be removed by filtration. It is resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine...Read more about cryptosporidium

CULTURAL EUTROPHICATION

Decline of the oxygen rate in water, which has serious consequences for aquatic life, caused by humans. Eutrophication is labelled as an improvement of water through the use of nutrient salts that produces changes in the structure of the ecosystem...Read more about cultural eutrophication

CURRENT

The portion of a stream or body of water, which is moving much faster than the rest of the water. The progress of the water is principally concentrated in the current. Streams are described as water bodies that consist of one or more currents...Read more about current

CYCLE

The length of time a filter can be used before it needs cleaning, usually including cleaning time. The cycle process generally takes up to eight weeks for your water to reach an acceptable level of purity...Read more about cycle

DEALKALINISATION

Any process that serves to reduce the alkalinity of water. A dealkalizer is a pre-treatment device commonly seen in boiler rooms which is responsible for removing carbonate alkalinity in the feed water before it reaches the boiler...Read more about dealkalinisation

DECANT

To draw off the upper layer of liquid after the heaviest material (a solid or another liquid) has settled. Decanting is also a chemical laboratory method used to separate mixtures. In its most rudimentary form, it simply means...Read more about decant

DECARBONATION

The process of removing carbon dioxide from water, using contact towers or air scrubbers. The elimination of carbon dioxide from water is an expression called “decarbonation” and it associates with the procedure for eroding and removing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from water...Read more about decarbonation

DECOMPOSITION

The break down of organic matter by bacteria and fungi, to change the chemical structure and physical appearance of matter. Decomposition works by making these organic substances such as earthworms...Read more about decomposition

DEFLUORIDATION

The removal of fluoride from drinking water to prevent teeth damage. Fluoride is one of the most common contaminants found in water that is responsible for reducing the safety and quality of the water...Read more about defluoridation

DE-FOAMING AGENTS

Chemicals that are added to wastewater discharges to prevent the water from foaming when it is discharged into a receiving water body. Defoaming agents are usually applied for the purposes of preventing or eliminating the occurrence of foam in water...Read more about de foaming agents

DEGASIFICATION

The process of removing dissolved gasses from water, using vacuum or heat. Degasification is utilized for several reasons that are not all associated with water treatment. Some forms of degasification are required for the production...Read more about degasification

DEIONIZATION

Deionization is the process that serves to remove all ionized substances from a solution. Most commonly is the exchange process where cations and anions are removed independently of each other...Read more about deionization

DEMINERALIZATION

Demineralization Processes to remove minerals from water, usually the term is restricted to ion exchange processes. Demineralization depends on the advanced water treatment method known as the ion exchange process...Read more about demineralization

DEMIWATER

Demineralised water. Water that is treated to be contaminant-, mineral- and salt free. In order to attain the salt and mineral free water, the salts and ions must be eliminated from the water...Read more about demiwater

DENITRIFICATION

Removal of nitrate and nitrate products from water to produce a quality that answers common water standards. While nitrogen is a much needed resource for all living things on earth, the removal of nitrate is vital to the quality of your water...Read more about denitrification

DENSITY

The weight of a certain amount of water. It is usually expressed in kilograms per cubic metre. The temperature of the water is the greatest influence on the weight of the water per its unit volume...Read more about density

DEPRESSION STORAGE

The storage of water in low areas, such as ponds, and wetlands. Depression storage refers to small low points in undulating terrain that can store precipitation that otherwise would become runoff...Read more about depression storage

DEPTH FILTRATION

Treatment process in which the entire filter bed is used to trap insoluble and suspended particles in its voids as water flows through it. Depth filtration depends on filter media that is based on cellulose and utilizes thickness (depth)...Read more about depth filtration

DESALINATION

The removal of salt from seawater or brackish water to produce drinking water, using various techniques. Desalination has grown in importance and usage due to seawater being an unlimited and dependable source of water for coastal populations around the world...Read more about desalination

DESORPTION

The opposite of adsorption; the release of matter from the adsorption medium, usually to recover material. In other words, desorption works by recovering the media that is used to accomplish absorption...Read more about desorption

DETENTION TIME

The actual time that a small amount of water is in a settling basin or flocculating basin. In storage reservoirs, it means the length of time water will be stored...Read more about detention time

DETERGENT

A water-soluble cleansing agent, other than soap. Cleaning agent that facilitates the elimination of dirt and grease from surface that are generally referred to as porous such as clothes, wood, and fabrics...Read more about detergent

DEWATER

The separation of water from sludge, to produce a solid cake. Dewatering is categorized as the process that eliminates water from soil through wetness. Wetness is attained through a building process that ascertains...Read more about dewater

DIFFUSER

A component of the ozone contacting system in an ozone generator that allows diffusion of an ozone containing gas. The diffusing process is done through a porous stone which is resistant to ozone and works in producing fine bubbles...Read more about diffuser

DIFFUSION

The movement of gas molecules or aerosols into liquids, caused by a concentration gradient. When macromolecules and tiny molecules are diffused they provide an important resource for animals, plants and biological matter...Read more about diffusion

DIGESTER

A closed tank for wastewater treatment, in which bacterial action is induced to break down organic matter. Wastewater treatment plants utilize anaerobic digestion in order to generate wastewater digester gas...Read more about digester

DILUTING WATER

Distilled water that has been stabilized, buffered, and aerated. Dilution is usually used in BOD tests for the purposes of removing the concentration of solute from a solution by increasing the amount of solvent in the solution...Read more about diluting water

DIRECT RUN-OFF

Water that flows from the ground surface directly into streams, rivers, and lakes. Rainfall and snow melting occurrences are some environmental events that produce direct run-off, which also produce flood hydrographs and reject base flows...Read more about direct run off

DISCHARGE

Flow of surface water in a stream or canal. Discharges of water runoff from land and other municipal areas such as buildings, parking lots, streets during periods of rainfall or snowfall events can often produce pollutants in large...Read more about discharge

DISINFECTANTS

Fluids or gasses to disinfect filters, pipelines, systems, etc. Disinfecting agents are applicable to non-organic objects for the purposes of eliminating unwanted viruses, fungi, moldews, mold and bacteria from building up on these objects...Read more about disinfectants

DISINFECTION

The decontamination of fluids and surfaces. To disinfect a fluid or surface a variety of techniques are used, such as ozone disinfection. Often disinfection means eliminating the present microorganisms with a biocide...Read more about disinfection

DISSOLVE

The process during which solid particles mix molecule by molecule with a liquid and appear to become part of the liquid. As particles dissolve, the molecules of the solvent place themselves in a surrounding position around the molecules of the solute...Read more about dissolve

DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION (DAF)

A procedure of induced flotation with very fine air bubbles or 'micro bubbles'. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are highly efficient in eliminating total dissolved solids (TDS), FOGand other contaminants from water and wastewater...Read more about dissolved air flotation daf

DISSOLVED OXYGEN

The amount of oxygen dissolved in water at a certain time, expressed in ppm mg/L. If your objective is to ascertain the quality of your water, analyzing the dissolved oxygen is one of the most effective parameters in doing so...Read more about dissolved oxygen

DISSOLVED SOLIDS

Solids material that totally dissolves in water and can be removed by means of filtration. There are many elements within water that can be considered as dissolved solids such as metals, salts, anions, cations and minerals which are dissolved in water...Read more about dissolved solids

DISTILLATION

Water treatment method where water is boiled to steam and condensed in a separate reservoir. Contaminants with higher boiling points than water do not vaporize and remain in the boiling flask...Read more about distillation

DREDGING

Cleaning, deepening, or widening of a waterway, using a machine (dredge) that removes materials by means of a scoop or a suction device. The process of dredging works by eliminating silt and other substances from material that are found at the bottom of water sources...Read more about dredging

DROUGHT

Term applied to periods of less than average precipitation over a certain period of time. Droughts do not negatively impact the quality of water within groundwater. In the off-chance that a person decides to drill up large wells in the ground...Read more about drought

DUPLICATES

Two separate samples with separate containers taken at the same time and at the same place. Duplicate samples are exactly replication but consistent of two portions...Read more about duplicates

DYSTROPHIC LAKES

Acidic bodies of water that contain many plants but few fish, due to the presence of great amounts of organic matter. Dystrophic lakes consist of very low collection of dissolved nutrients to reinforce substantial plant life while containing...Read more about dystrophic lakes

EFFLUENT

The outlet or outflow of any system that deals with water flows, for an oxidation pond for biological water purification. It is the product water of the given system. Effluent provides for various useful applications, although much of it is discharged into rivers and large water masses...Read more about effluent

EJECTOR

A device used to inject a chemical solution into wastewater during water treatment. Ejectors are presently used on a widespread basis in marine applications for the purposes of treating water for their incredibly high suction capabilities and dependability...Read more about ejector

ELECTRICAL CHARGE

The charge on an ion, declared by its number of electrons. A Cl- ion is in fact a Cl atom which has acquired an electron, and a Ca++ ion is a Ca atom, which has lost two electrons...Read more about electrical charge

ELECTRODEIONIZATION

Electrodeionization(EDI) removes ions from aqueous streams, typically in conjunction with reverse osmosis (RO) and other purification devices. EDI produces ultrapure water up to 18.2MW/cm, and provides several other benefits...Read more about electrodeionization

ELECTRODIALYSIS

A process that uses electrical currents, applied to permeable membranes, to remove minerals from water. Electrodialysis works by incorporating membranes that are electrically charged and utilized in separating ions from aquatic solutions...Read more about electrodialysis

ELECTROLYTE

Substance that dissociates into ions when it dissolves in water. Electrolytes are considered beneficial to your body due to consisting of minerals that possess electrical charges...Read more about electrolyte

ELECTRONS

Negatively charged building blocks of an atom that circle around the nucleus. Electrons are categorized as molecular particles that surround the nucleus of an atom. They are much smaller in size compared to the nucleus of the atom...Read more about electrons

ELEMENTS

The distinctive building blocks of matter those make up every material substance. An element is defined in chemical terminology as a substance that consists of atoms with a number of protons...Read more about elements

ELUTRIATION

Freeing sludge of its mother liquor by washing it with water. The elutriation process is responsible for severing heavier particles from lighter ones due to the utilization of upwardly directed streams of liquid or gas...Read more about elutriation

EMULSIFIER

A chemical that helps suspend one liquid in another. Emulsifiers can also be considered as molecules that have two ends called hydrophobic (oil-consuming) and the other hydrophilic (water-consuming)...Read more about emulsifier

EMULSION

Dispersion of one liquid in another liquid, occurs when a liquid in insoluble. An emulsion can be referred to as a colloid that is produced from two liquids that are not exactly intermixable...Read more about emulsion

END-OF-PIPE TECHNIQUES

Techniques for water purification that serve the reduction pollutants after they have formed. End-of-pipe technologies are important to preserving the safety of the environment due to their ability in drastically reducing the emission of substances from entering the atmosphere...Read more about end of pipe techniques

ENRICHMENT

When the addition of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, from sewage effluent or agricultural runoff to surface water, greatly increases algal growth. Nutrient enrichment in reservoirs and lakes are increasingly...Read more about enrichment

EROSION

The wearing away of the land surface by wind, water, ice or other geological agents. Erosion occurs naturally from weather or runoff but is often intensified by human land use practices. Water is the most primary instrument causing erosion on the planet earth...Read more about erosion

ESCHERICHA COLI (E. COLI)

Coliform bacterium that is often associated with human and animal waste and is found in the intestinal court. Although E. coli is capable of residing in the human intestinal court without is responsible for about 90 percent...Read more about eschericha coli e coli

ESTUARY

Region of interaction between rivers and near-shore ocean waters, where tidal action and river flow mix fresh and saltwater. Therefore estuaries mainly consist of brackish water...Read more about estuary

EUTROPHIC

Referring to water that is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Eutrophication is depicted as when there is an overabundance of algae and plants as a result of a greater availability of one or multiple numbers...Read more about eutrophic

EVAPORATION PONDS

Areas where sewage sludge is dumped and dried. Evaporation ponds have been used by humans for thousands of years for the purposes of evaporating water with high saline concentrations...Read more about evaporation ponds

EVAPORATION

The process of the passage of water from liquid to vapour. Evaporation is the procedure that causes liquid to convert to gas or vapor by way of changes in the water...Read more about evaporation

EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

The loss of water from the soil through vaporizing, both by direct evaporation and by transpiration from plants. Evapotranspiration is the process that sees a reduction of water from soil through an evaporation process from the soil surface...Read more about evapotranspiration

FACULTATIVE BACTERIA

Bacteria that can live under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In other terms, facultative bacteria is capable of utilizing dissolved oxygen or the oxygen that arises from food items such as nitrate or sulfate, including through glycolysis...Read more about facultative bacteria

FERMENTATION

The conversion of organic matter to methane, carbon dioxide and other molecules by anaerobic bacteria. The fermentation process has about three primary forms...Read more about fermentation

FILTER MEDIUM

The permeable material that separates solids from liquids passing through it. Liquid filters cast off unwanted pollutants, impurities and treasured substances from fluids. Filter media for liquids encompass woven fabrics, metal screens, granular beds, and fiber...Read more about filter medium

FILTRATE

A liquid that has passed through the filter medium. Filtrates are produced during filtration when all the fluids are strained and bigger particles remain in the straining media, while smaller particles, including liquid pass through...Read more about filtrate

FILTRATION

Separation of a solid and a liquid by using a porous substance that only lets the liquid pass through. Filtration occurs during a process when solids are separated from gases or liquids by utilizing a filter medium...Read more about filtration

FIRST DRAW

When the water is opened for the first time from tap water sources. The water is prone to be affected with elevated levels of lead contamination from the disintegration of the pipelines...Read more about first draw

FISSION

Reproduction of microorganisms by means of cell division. Fission is a process that results in the creation of fission products through slamming neutrons into larger atoms, which induces it to excite and halve into smaller atoms...Read more about fission

FLOC

A flocculent mass that is formed in the accumulation of suspended particles. It can occur naturally, but is usually induced in order to be able to remove certain particles from wastewater. It consists of finely divided suspended particles...Read more about floc

FLOCCULATION

The accumulation of destabilized particles and micro flakes, and subsequently the formation of sizable flakes. One must add another chemical called flocculent in order to facilitate the formation of flakes called flocs...Read more about flocculation

FLOTATION

A solids-liquid or liquid-liquid separation procedure, which is applied to particles of which the density is lower than that of the liquid they are in. there are three types: natural, aided and induces flotation...Read more about flotation

FLOW

The discharge rate of a resource, expressed in volume during a certain period of time. The flow of a stream without delay is associated with the degree of water transferring off the watershed in the water stream channel...Read more about flow

FLUX

The rate at which a Reverse Osmosis Membrane allows water to pass through it. Flux is usually described as volume per area per unit of time, and is considered as proportional to pressure and temperature...Read more about flux

FOULING

The deposition of organic matter on the membrane surface, which causes inefficiencies. Fouling can take the form of many classifications, such as organic fouling which describes the relationship between biofouling and organic...Read more about fouling

FRAGMENTATION

The subdivision of a solid in fragments. The fragments will then adhere to the nearest surface. River fragmentations occur when there is an impediment on the river’s natural flow by the...Read more about fragmentation

FREEZING

The change of a liquid into a solid as temperature decreases. For water, the freezing point is 0 degrees Celsius. This process occurs when there is no heat within an object, which induces the molecules...Read more about freezing

FRESHWATER

Water containing less than 1 mg/l of dissolved solids of any type. Water sources can only be considered freshwater when they do not include brackish or seawater...Read more about freshwater

GALLON

A unit that is now almost entirely out of date. It is equivalent to 3.785 litres. Each gallon has roughly four quarts, two pints in a quart, and sixteen ounces in a pint, which equals one ounce equal to 1128 of a gallon...Read more about gallon

GIARDIA

A microorganism that is commonly found in untreated surface water and can be removed by filtration. It is resistant to disinfectants such as chlorine. Giardia are considered as tiny parasites...Read more about giardia

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

The heating of carbon to encourage active sites to absorb pollutants. Granular activated carbon can be categorized with the holding of activated carbon on a 50-mesh sieve...Read more about granular activated carbon

GRAY WATER

Domestic wastewater is composed of wash water from kitchen, bathroom, and laundry sinks and from tubs, and washers. Greywater has the appearance of looking dirty, but is still secure enough to utilize in applications such as irrigation...Read more about gray water

GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE

Ground water entering coastal waters, which has been contaminated by land-fill leachates, deep well injection of hazardous wastes and septic tanks. Groundwater discharge is the expression that relates the outflow...Read more about groundwater discharge

GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY

The branch of hydrology that deals with the occurrence, movements, replenishment and depletion, properties and methods of investigation and utilisation of groundwater...Read more about groundwater hydrology

GROUNDWATER

Water that can be found in the saturated zone of the soil; a zone that consists merely of water. It slowly moves from places with high elevation and pressure to places with low elevation and pressure, such as rivers and lakes...Read more about groundwater

GULLY

A deeply eroded channel created by the concentrated flow of water. A gully consists of a variety of conditions that make erosion possible, such as climate change, fire, storms, or human efforts in eliminating natural vegetation that protects the soil...Read more about gully

HALF-LIFE

The time required for a pollutant to lose one-half of its original concentration. In other words, the half-life of a pollutant is the time it will need for the concentration of that matter to reduce to half of its immediate value...Read more about half life

Hanna Instruments

We believe in controlling the quality of our Hanna instruments from their inception to delivery. For this reason, Hanna Instruments manufactures all the products including, meters, electrodes, chemical reagents and buffer solutions...Read more about hanna instruments

HARD WATER

Water that contains a great number of positive ions. The hardness is determined by the number of calcium and magnesium atoms present. Soap usually dissolves badly in hard water...Read more about hard water

HEAT EXCHANGER

A component that is utilized to remove heat from or add heat to a liquid. The heat exchanger is highly efficient in transferring heat from different matters without carrying the fluid. Heat exchangers can be utilized...Read more about heat exchanger

HEAVY METALS

Metals that have a density of 5.0 or higher and a high elemental weight. Most are toxic to humans, even in low concentrations. Some prevalent heavy metal contaminants are lead, chromium, arsenic, nickel, copper, mercury, and cadmium...Read more about heavy metals

HEAVY WATER

Water in which all the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by deuterium. While heavy water is mainly as a medium in nuclear reactors, it is not considered radioactive. For this reason, if heavy water is consumed then radiation poisoning should be of no concern...Read more about heavy water

HENRY'S LAW

A way of calculating the solubility of a gas in a liquid, based on temperature and partial pressure, by means of constants. Henry's Law is used in chemistry as a law that declares there is a direct...Read more about henrys law

HOLDING POND

A pond or reservoir, usually made of earth, built to store polluted runoff. The holding pond is viewed as the least sizable water body and unlike other water sources, is not connected to a water system...Read more about holding pond

HOMEOWNER WATER SYSTEM

A tank that is used to inject air into water. These tanks are generally economical, durable, and highly reliable even in very challenging water. The process works by utilizing oxidation in the water and inserting pressurized air into the water system...Read more about homeowner water system

HUMIDIFICATION

The addition of water vapour to air. The humidification process works by elevating the degree of humidity within the atmosphere surrounding the patient through the utilization of steam inhalers or aerosol generators...Read more about humidification

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

The rate at which water can move through a permeable medium. Hydraulic conductivity is seen as a property that analyzes the likelihood of materials to transfer...Read more about hydraulic conductivity

HYDRAULIC GRADIENT

In general, the direction of groundwater flow due to changes in the depth of the water table. The Hydraulic Gradient can be seen on the water table between multiple hydraulic head measurements over the flow path’s distance...Read more about hydraulic gradient

HYDROCARBON

Organic compounds that are built of carbon and hydrogen atoms and are often used in petroleum industries. Hydrocarbons are general organic substances that are widely viewed as the main thrust of western civilization...Read more about hydrocarbon

HYDROELECTRIC POWER WATER USE

The use of water in the generation of electricity at plants where the turbine generators are driven by falling water. Hydroelectric power is required for water use in some areas and works by flowing water through generators where...Read more about hydroelectric power water use

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

Hydrogen sulfide is a gas emitted during organic decomposition by a select group of bacteria, which strongly smells like rotten eggs. It is highly corrosive and produces brittle metals that require specific precautions...Read more about hydrogen sulfide (h2s)

HYDROGEOLOGY

Hydrogeology is the science of chemistry and movement of groundwater. Hydrogeology is important in explaining the phenomenon of underground water movement in the soils and rocks of earth’s surface...Read more about hydrogeology

HYDROGRAPH

A chart that measures the amount of water flowing past a point as a function of time. Hydrographs act as a representation of the world and the meteorological status...Read more about hydrograph

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

The natural cycle of water passing through the environment, including evaporation, condensation, retention and run-off. The hydrologic cycle is mainly enforced through the sun’s energy...Read more about hydrologic cycle

HYDROLYSIS

The decomposition of organic compounds by interaction with water. Hydrolysis in its purest form are chemical reactions that when occurring in water are used to dissolve the bonds of a specific substance...Read more about hydrolysis

HYDROPHILIC

Having an affinity for water. Hydrophilic pollutants arise in inorganic or organic forms throughout nature and are very common within the environment. Organic pollutants that can be considered...Read more about hydrophilic

HYDROPHOBIC

Having an aversion to water. The process of hydrophobic states that substances which are not polar do not mix with water molecules. This is important since water is a molecular that is considered polar and possesses a partial charge between its atoms...Read more about hydrophobic

HYDROSPHERE

The hydrosphere is a region that includes all the earth's liquid water, frozen water, floating ice, frozen upper layer of soil, and the small amounts of water vapour in the atmosphere...Read more about hydrosphere

HYPOCHLORITE

An anion that forms products such as calcium and sodium hypochlorite. These products are often used for disinfection and bleaching. Hypochlorite is a compound that is efficient in the utilization of water purification due to its...Read more about hypochlorite

HYPOXIC WATERS

Waters with dissolved oxygen concentrations of less than 2 mg/L, the level generally accepted as the minimum required for life and reproduction of aquatic organisms. Hypoxia waters are prevalent due to the actions of human pollution...Read more about hypoxic waters

ICE

Ice represents the solid form of water. As water begins to freeze in cold temperature then its molecules are separated which decreases the water’s density. Ice around the world is shown on earth through various...Read more about ice

IMHOFF CONE

A transparent, funnel-shaped container that is utilized to analyze the volume of configurable solids in a certain volume of water. Imhoff cones generally have capacities of about one liter and are...Read more about imhoff cone

IMMISCIBILITY

Immiscibility is the inability of two or more solids or liquids to readily dissolve into one another. During this process, there is no possibility of these two substances forming a homogeneous...Read more about immiscibility

IMPERMEABLE

Impermeable objects are considered those that are not easily penetrated by water. These objects include stone, asphalt, bricks, wood, coverage, and other material which do not require permeable spacing...Read more about impermeable

IMPURITIES

Impurities are particles or other objects that cause water to be unclear. When there are no impurities found in the water then it is considered pure with no traces of something that can spoil it inside...Read more about impurities

INDICATOR ORGANISMS

Microorganisms, such as coliforms, whose presence is indicative for pollution or for the presence more harmful microorganisms. Indicator organisms are directly related to the existence of unwanted excretents...Read more about indicator organisms

INDICATOR TESTS

Tests for a specific contaminant, group of contaminants, or constituent which signals the presence of something else. Indicator tests are essential for water analysis in order to ascertain more information and come up...Read more about indicator tests

INDICATOR

Any biological entity or process, or community whose characteristics show the presence of specific environmental conditions or pollutants. Good indicators of water pollution are the contaminants found within that source of water...Read more about indicator

INDIRECT DISCHARGE

Introduction of pollutants from a non-domestic source into a publicly owned wastewater treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities whose wastes enter local sewers...Read more about indirect discharge

INFILTRATION

Penetration of water into a medium, for instance the soil. The process of infiltration measures the rate at which the soil on the ground absorbs rainwater or irrigation water...Read more about infiltration

INHIBITOR

Inhibitors are chemicals that interject with a chemical reaction, including the process of precipitation. Some of the effects that these substances have on chemical reactions are seen in the velocity, which is slowed...Read more about inhibitor

INJECTION

The introduction of a chemical or medium into the process water to alter its chemistry or filter specific compounds. Water injection entails putting injection wells throughout reservoirs and for the purposes of producing...Read more about injection

INORGANIC CHEMICALS

Chemical substances of mineral origin, not of basically carbon structure. These inorganic chemicals do not possess carbon and do not originate from living matter...Read more about inorganic chemicals

ION EXCHANGE

The replacement of undesirable ions with a certain charge by desirable ions of the same charge in a solution, by an ion-permeable absorbent. Ion exchange resins work by producing reversible chemical reactions that help remove solutions through...Read more about ion exchange

ION

An atom in a solution that is charged, either positively (cations) or negatively (anions). Ions work by choosing to form when it will help reduce the total possible energy of the chemical elements involved within the chemical reaction...Read more about ion

IRRIGATION

Applying water or wastewater to land areas to supply the water and nutrient needs of plants. There are a wide variety of irrigation systems that are capable of being used such as channels, canals, ditches, and hoses...Read more about irrigation

JAR TEST

A laboratory test procedure with differing chemical doses, mix speeds, and settling times, to estimate the minimum or ideal coagulant dose required to achieve water quality goals...Read more about jar test

KINETIC ENERGY

Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by flowing water and is viewable as the flowing of materials, sediments, and other physical properties...Read more about kinetic energy

KINETIC RATE COEFFICIENT

A number that describes the rate at which a water constituent such as a biochemical oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen rises or falls...Read more about kinetic rate coefficient

LABORATORY WATER

Purified water used in the laboratory as a basis to create solutions or making dilutions. It contains no interfering substances. Laboratories utilize purified water for the purposes of experiments...Read more about laboratory water

LAGOON

A shallow pond where sunlight, bacterial action, and oxygen work to purify wastewater. Lagoons are shallow bodies of water that provide a protective mechanism against greater water sources...Read more about lagoon

LAKE

An inland body of water, usually fresh water, formed by glaciers, river drainage, etc. It is usually larger than a pool or pond. The similar size between lakes and ponds makes differentiating the two amongst each other much greater...Read more about lake

LAMINAR FLOW

A flow in which rapid fluctuations are absent. Laminar flow represents the contrast of turbulent flow. It describes the continuous flow of a fluid over surfaces in a smooth manner, with a constant pressure and velocity...Read more about laminar flow

LAND APPLICATION

Land applications can be defined as a discharge of wastewater onto the ground for treatment or reuse. These applications contain minimal capital and operating costs needed for seawater...Read more about land application

LANGELIER INDEX (LI)

An index reflecting the equilibrium pH of a water with respect to calcium and alkalinity; used in stabilizing water to control both corrosion and scale deposition...Read more about langelier index (li)

LEACHATE

Leachates are considered water bodies that possess solute materials to the point that it has specific substances in the solution once percolation is completed through the soil or a filter...Read more about leachate

LEACHING

The process by which soluble constituents are dissolved and filtered through the soil by a percolating fluid. Leaching provides issues of pollution due to its flow of contaminants such as...Read more about leaching

LEAKAGE

A species of ions in the feed of an ion exchanger present in the effluent. Leakages allow the movement of ions to flow across the cell membrane and through their gradients to a lower concentration, which can help preserve a stagnant...Read more about leakage

LIGHT ABSORPTION

The amount of light a certain amount of water can absorb over time. Light absorption occurs when the production of energy is attained through absorbing light and converting it into energy...Read more about light absorption

LIME

Common water treatment chemical. Lime can be deposed on walls of showers and bathrooms, after lime has reacted with calcium to form limestone...Read more about lime

LIMNOLOGY

The study of the physical, chemical, hydrological, and biological aspects of fresh water. The process of Limnology takes into account the workings of water sources on inland terrain and highlights their contrasting aspects...Read more about limnology

LIQUID

A state of matter, neither gas nor solid, that flows and takes the shape of its container. The characteristics of liquid hovers between the principle definition of a solid and gas...Read more about liquid

MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL (MCL)

The maximum level of a contaminant allowed in water by federal law. Based on health effects and currently available treatment methods. The MCL process starts with an assessment of the...Read more about maximum contaminant level (mcl)

MECHANICAL AERATION

Use of mechanical energy to inject air into water to cause a waste stream to absorb oxygen. Most traditional mechanical oxygenating machines function on a horizontal basis. These systems are made up with tubings...Read more about mechanical aeration

MECHANICAL FLOTATION

A term used in the mineral industry to describe the use of dispersed air to produce bubbles that measure 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter. This process works by releasing small bubbles into the air that is immersed in the froth...Read more about mechanical flotation

MEDIA

Materials that form a barrier to the passage of certain suspended solids or dissolved liquids in filters. These materials are generally referred to as filter media and works by changing the water quality by preventing...Read more about media

MEDIUM-SIZE WATER SYSTEM

A water system that serves 3,300 to 50,000 customers. Most of the country's public water systems are made up of small and medium sized water systems that were built to serve less than 10,000 people...Read more about medium size water system

MELTING

The change of a solid into a liquid. Melting is the process that is also known as fusion and takes on several different meanings. The most common occurrence of melting is when the energy within a solid is intensified...Read more about melting

MESOTROPHIC

Reservoirs and lakes which contain moderate quantities of nutrients and are moderately productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life. Mesotrophic lakes are usually consisting of pure water, with a wide array of aquatic...Read more about mesotrophic

METABOLISE

Conversion of food, for instance soluble organic matter, to cellular matter and gaseous by-products through a biological process. Metabolism is categorized as a chemical process that exists in all...Read more about metabolise

MFS

Micro Filtration System, it serves full automatic solid/ liquid separation. Microfiltration filters contain pore sizes of around 0.1 microns, so when the process of microfiltration is occuring there are a huge number of biological...Read more about (mfs)

MICROBIAL GROWTH

The multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, diatoms, plankton, and fungi. Microorganisms require enough water supplies in order to completely develop successfully...Read more about microbial growth

MICRON

A unit to describe a measure of length, and is used in many industries, including engineering and biology. Microns are referred to as general units of measurement and called micrometers due its representation...Read more about micron

MICROORGANISMS

Organisms that are so small that they can only be observed through a microscope, for instance bacteria, fungi or yeasts. Microorganisms consist of a huge phase of the world’s occurring substances and act as a primary...Read more about

MINERAL WATER

Contains large amounts of dissolved minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, and iron. Some tap waters contain as many or more minerals than some commercial mineral waters...Read more about mineral water

MISCIBILITY

The ability of two liquids to mix. The phenomena of miscibility is that both liquids are capable of mixing without any limitations, which means that they are soluble at every degree...Read more about miscibility

MIST

Liquid particles measuring 40 to 500 micrometers, are formed by condensation of vapour. By comparison, fog particles are smaller than 40 micrometers. Mists are representations of figs but differ slightly in occurrences...Read more about mist

MIXTURE

Various elements, compounds or both, that are mixed. Mixtures are elements that can be produced by mixing multiple kinds of material in a manner that is without any sort of chemical reaction. These mixtures are capable of separating...Read more about mixture

MOLECULES

Molecules are visualized as very miniscule pieces of certain substances. These tiny particles are referred to as biomolecule when within the structural or cellular stages. Combinations of two or more atoms of the same or different elements...Read more about molecules

MUNICIPAL DISCHARGE

Municipal discharge is categorized as effluent that originated from wastewater treatment plants and collects wastewater from sources such as industrial facilities, commercial businesses, and households...Read more about municipal discharge

MUNICIPAL SEWAGE

Municipal discharge is categorized as effluent that originated from wastewater treatment plants and collects wastewater from sources such as industrial facilities, commercial businesses, and households...Read more about municipal sewage

MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

Semi liquid residue that remains from the treatment of municipal water and wastewater. Municipal sludge is considered as the byproduct of wastewater purification and is generated on a global basis...Read more about municipal sludge

NEUTRALIZATION

The addition of substances to neutralize water, so that it is neither acid, nor basic. Neutralization does not specifically mean a pH of 7.0, it just means the equivalent point of an acid-base reaction...Read more about neutralization

NEUTRONS

Uncharged building blocks of an atom that play a part in radio-activity. They can be found in the nucleus. Neutrons are particles that exist within the atomic nucleus with a charge that equals zero and a mass that equals one...Read more about neutrons

NITRIFICATION

A biological process, during which nitrifying bacteria convert toxic ammonia to less harmful nitrate. There are two steps that executes the nitrification process, and the first step consists of ammonia oxidizing to the nitrite and the second step...Read more about nitrification

NON-POINT SOURCES

Diffuse water pollution sources without a specific point of origin. The pollutants are generally carried off the land by storm water. Common non-point sources are agriculture and atmospheric disposal...Read more about non point sources

NON-POTABLE

Water that is unsafe or unpalatable to drink because it contains pollutants, contaminants, minerals or infectious agents. Although considered unsafe to drink, non-potable water can be utilized for a variety of purposes, which is reliant on its quality...Read more about non potable

NUCLEUS

The nucleus is the center of an atom, that contains protons and neutrons and carries a positive charge. It is related to a membrane organ that possesses DNA, which are referred to as eukaryotes...Read more about nucleus

NUISANCE CONTAMINANT

Constituents in water, which are not normally harmful to health but may cause offensive taste, odor, color, corrosion, foaming, or staining. Nuisance contaminants represent not as great of a threat as compared...Read more about nuisance contaminant

NUTRIENT POLLUTION

Contamination of water resources by excessive inputs of nutrients. In surface waters, excess algal production is a major concern. Nutrient pollution occurs when there is an overabundance of nutrients...Read more about nutrient pollution

NUTRIENT

Any substance that promotes growth with living organisms. The term is generally applied to nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, but is also applied to other essential and trace elements...Read more about nutrient

ORGANIC MATTER

Substances of (dead) plant or animal matter, with a carbon-hydrogen structure. Organic matter is defined as the all-purpose combination of many organic substances existing in water. These organic substances come from animal...Read more about organic matter

OSMOSIS

Water molecules passing through membranes naturally, to the side with the highest concentration of dissolved impurities. Osmosis occurs naturally in the human body through the movement of water from higher levels to lower levels across a permeable membrane...Read more about osmosis

OUTFALL

Outfalls are places where a wastewater treatment plant discharges treated water into the environment. Water sources such as oceans and estuaries accumulate the highest percentage of wastewater discharge after treatment is completed...Read more about outfall

OVERFLOW RATE

One of the guidelines for design of the settling tanks and clarifiers in a treatment plant to determine if tanks and clarifiers are used enough. Overflow rate represents the parameters that explain the real traits...Read more about overflow rate

OXIDATION POND

A man-made body of water in which waste is consumed by bacteria. Oxidation ponds are also referred to as equilibrium ponds or lagoons due to their large sizes and shallow ends that help purify wastewater through the incorporation of bacteria...Read more about oxidation pond

OXIDATION

A chemical reaction in which ions are transferring electrons, to increase positive valence. Oxidation represents the decrease of electrons when there is a reaction from an ion, atom, or molecule. This process happens when there is an elevation...Read more about oxidation

OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL

The electric potential required to transfer electrons from the oxidant to the reductant, used as a qualitative measure of the state of oxidation in water treatment systems. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) takes into account the functionality of rivers...Read more about oxidation reduction potential

OXYGEN DEPLETION

Oxygen depletion is the reduction of the dissolved oxygen level in a water body. The main reason for the occurence of oxygen depletion within a water source is due to elevated levels of algae and the growth in phytoplankton...Read more about oxygen depletion

OZONE GENERATOR

Ozone generators are devices that generate ozone by passing a voltage through a chamber that contains oxygen. It is often used as a disinfection system. Ozone generators work by increasing the amount of toxic gas ozone and are generally...Read more about ozone generator

OZONE

An unstable oxidizing agent, that consists of three oxygen atoms and can be found in the ozone layer in the atmosphere. It is produced by electrical discharge through oxygen or by specifically designed UV-lamps...Read more about ozone

PARAMETER

A variable, measurable property whose value is a determinant of the characteristics of a system such as water. The terms parameter and perimeter are sometimes seen as interchangeable, but have different meanings...Read more about parameter

PARTIAL PRESSURE

That pressure of a gas in a liquid, which is in equilibrium with the solution. In a mixture of gases, the partial pressure of any one gas is the total pressure times the fraction of the gas in the mixture (by volume or number of molecules)...Read more about partial pressure

PARTICLE SIZE

The sizes of a particle, determined by the smallest dimension, for instance a diameter. It is usually expressed in micron measurements. The techniques most often utilized in contemporary times for the purposes of spreading...Read more about particle size

PARTICULATE LOADING

The mass of particulates per unit volume of water. Particulate loading works by measuring the quantity of weight of particles for each unit time to gain further insight on the amount of undertaking is generated in the environment...Read more about particulate loading

PARTS PER BILLION

Expressed as ppb; a unit of concentration equivalent to the µg/l. Parts per billion represents the quantity of components of mass of one pollutant per one thousand part of total mass and is utilized for the purposes of analyzing...Read more about parts per billion

PASTEURISATION

The elimination of microorganisms by heat applies for a certain period of time. Pasteurization is completed through a continuation procedure or batches. Vats pasteurizers are efficient due to being in control of temperature...Read more about pasteurisation

PATHOGENS

Disease-producing microorganisms. Pathogens consist of organisms that instill diseases into hosts and cause illnesses in human beings. Only a minimal amount of pathogens is necessary to create illnesses in the human...Read more about pathogens

PERCENT SATURATION

The amount of a substance that is dissolved in a solution compared to the amount that could be dissolved in it. Percent saturation works by following the trend of the temperature, as seen by when the temperature is increased...Read more about percent saturation

PERCOLATING WATER

Water that passes through rocks or soil under the force of gravity. Percolating water is referred to as the transition of water in soil sources named as infiltration, including the downwards transition of water through the soil named percolation...Read more about percolating water

PERIODIC CHART

Arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers, created by a scientist called Mendelejef. The periodic chart is bestowed as the heat of chemistry and is used as a means of listing the elements...Read more about periodic chart

PERMEABILITY

The ability of a medium to pass a fluid under pressure. Permeability exists usually in pure water that is also considered as pure water flux and characterized as the water volume that flows through membranes at per unit time, unit, and area of transmembrane pressure...Read more about permeability

PERSISTENCE

Refers to the length of time a compound stays in the environment, once introduced. Persistence works hand to hand with the process of determination that requires direct focus on a specific purpose...Read more about persistence

PHASE

A phase can be defined in science as a state of matter. Liquid, solid, plasma, and gases are all considered physical forms of a phase. Some of the sequences that lead to phases transitioning from these different forms are through...Read more about phase

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

The process of conversion of water and carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. It takes place in the presence of chlorophyll and is activated by sunlight. During the process oxygen is released. Only plants and a limited number of microorganisms can perform photosynthesis....Read more about photosynthesis

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENT

Processes generally used in wastewater treatment facilities. Physical processes are for instance filtration. Chemical treatment can be coagulation, chlorination, or ozone treatment...Read more about physical and chemical treatment

PHYSICAL WEATHERING

Breaking down of rock into bits and pieces by exposure to temperature and changes and the physical action of moving ice and water, growing roots, and human activities such as farming and construction...Read more about physical weathering

PHYTOPLANKTON

Free-floating, mostly microscopic aquatic plants. Phytoplankton acts as the foundation of various sea level food webs. Within an equitable ecosystem, the food is distributed to a great range of aquatic organisms...Read more about phytoplankton

PILOT TESTS

The testing of a cleanup technology under actual site conditions in a laboratory in order to identify potential problems before implementation. Pilot tests are conducted on small-scale samples that consist of a scarce amount...Read more about pilot tests

POE-TREATMENT

Point-Of-Entry treatment. Total water treatment at the inlet to an entire building or facility. Poe treatment depends on several different kinds of water treatment systems that are utilized within certain industrial facilities...Read more about poe treatment

POINT SOURCE

A stationary location from which pollutants are discharged. It is a single identifiable source of pollution, such as a pipeline or a factory. Point sources are productive in discharging contaminants...Read more about point source

POLAR SUBSTANCE

A substance that carries a positive or negative charge, for instance water. Polar substances can be referred to as substances that are connected covalently and result in electronegativity dissimilarities that have the probability...Read more about polar substance

POLLUTANT

A contaminant at a concentration high enough to endanger the life of organisms. Pollutants have been one of the primary substances responsible for lowering the quality of the environment...Read more about pollutant

POP'S

Persistent Organic Pollutants, complex compounds that are very persistent and difficult biologically degradable. Pop’s represent chemical groups that are highly toxic and are responsible...Read more about pops

PORE

An opening in a membrane or medium that allows water to pass through. Pores are displayed as surveys that act as maps for surface contours of the shallowest parts of water sources. These pores are also seen as the water...Read more about pore

POTABLE WATER

Water that is safe for drinking and cooking. Potable water can be perceived as water that makes for high quality human consumption and is capable of being utilized for cooking and drinking...Read more about potable water

POTENTIATION

The ability of one chemical to increase the effect of another chemical. Medicinal facilities utilize the effects of potentiation in order to improve the potency and efficiency of drugs and other treatments...Read more about potentiation

POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE

The surface to which water in an aquifer can rise by hydrostatic pressure. The potentiometric surface is the stage where water elevates within wells and is often referred to as a water table map which displays...Read more about potentiometric surface

POU-TREATMENT

Point-Of-Use treatment. Water treatment at a limited number of outlets in a building, for less than the whole building. POU tools are used to purify water that is specifically used for the purposes of cooking and consuming, mainly...Read more about pou treatment

PRECIPITATE

An insoluble reaction product in an aqueous chemical reaction. A precipitate in chemistry is viewed as when a solid that is without a solution arises from a flowing solution. Precipitation is referred to as a process that occurs when an insoluble...Read more about precipitate

PRECIPITATION PROCESS

The altering of dissolved compounds to insoluble or badly soluble compounds, in order to be able to remove the compounds by means of filtration. The process of precipitation is vital to preserving the balance of the atmosphere...Read more about precipitation process

PRESSURE SEWERS

A system of pipes in which water, wastewater, or other liquid is pumped to a higher elevation. Pressure sewers are categorized as advanced sanitary sewage systems that incorporate a large network of grinder pumps for the purposes...Read more about pressure sewers

PRE-TREATMENT

Processes used to reduce or eliminate wastewater pollutants from before they are discharged. Pre-treatment helps in producing high quality water by removing unwanted impurities from the product water before combining it with the primary...Read more about pre treatment

PRIMARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

The removal of suspended, floating and precipitated solids from untreated wastewater. The main goal of this process is to eradicate as much impurities from the effluent water before discharging it to the environment...Read more about primary wastewater treatment

PROCESS WATER

Water that serves in any level of the manufacturing process of certain products. Process water is classified as water that is unclassifiable in terms of drinking water and is used in conjunction within industrial plants and processes...Read more about process water

PRODUCT WATER

Product water is categorized as water that has already been sent through a water treatment plant and is ready to be distributed to consumers. Product water is not always completely safe to consume or use in applications...Read more about product water

PROTONS

Positively charged building blocks of an atom that are centered in the nucleus. Protons can also be found within the nucleus of an atom that contains neutrons, with an atomic number that is equivalent to the amount of protons in a specific atom...Read more about protons

PROTOZOA

Protozoa are referred to as large microorganisms that work in consuming bacteria. One-celled organisms that are somewhat larger in size than bacteria, and possess a nucleus, including other cell formations...Read more about protozoa

PUBLIC WATER SYSTEM

A system that provides piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections or regularly serves 25 individuals. Public water systems collect water from a variety of water bodies, but specifically two that are referred...Read more about public water system

PUTREFACTION

Putrefaction is made up of biological decomposition of organic matter; associated with anaerobic conditions. Putrefaction occurs with the deterioration of organic substances through the activities of biological organisms...Read more about putrefaction

PYROGEN

Substance that is produced by bacteria and it is fairly stable. It causes fever in mammals. Pyrogen Pyrogen is broken up pieces of disease-causing substances that transition through the immune system and blood stream...Read more about pyrogen

QUALITATIVE WATER ASSESSMENT

Analyses of water used to describe the visible or aesthetic characteristics of water. Qualitative water assessments are important to indicate what the correct drinking water supply is for a specific city and ensure...Read more about qualitative water assessment

QUANTITATIVE WATER ASSESSMENT

Use of analyses of water properties and concentrations of compounds and contaminants in order to define water quality. Quantitative water assessment is highly instrumental in sustaining...Read more about quantitative water assessment

QUICKSILVER WATER

A solution of mercury nitrate used in gilding. Quicksilver water are considered elements in the periodic chart with the symbol Hg and consists of an atomic number of 80...Read more about quicksilver water

RADIOACTIVE

Having the property of releasing radiation. Radiation works in breaking down cells that exist in the human body. Radiation at only minimal levels is not harmful to humans, but can result in illnesses such as fevers...Read more about radioactive

RAW SEWAGE

Untreated wastewater and its contents. Raw sewage is produced by the community and large consists of feces, debris, sanitary appliances such as towels, plastics, and industrial wastes...Read more about raw sewage

RAW WATER

Intake water before any treatment or use. Pathogens and other unwanted impurities are often incorporated within raw water sources. Officials in sanitation facilities and water treatment plants...Read more about raw water

REAERATION

Renewing air supplies in the lower layers of a reservoir in order to raise oxygen levels. Reaeration is an organic physical measure that acts as the final rate of movement of oxygen from the environment to a water source with free surfaces...Read more about reaeration

RECARBONIZATION

Process in which carbon dioxide is bubbled into treatment water in order to lower the pH. Recarbonization is utilized as the final stage once the process of lime softening is completed and helps in stabilizing...Read more about recarbonization

RECHARGE AREA

An area where rainwater soaks through the ground to reach an aquifer. Recharge areas are defined as zones that consist of water sources seeping within the ground and replenishing aquifers due to non-existing confining layers...Read more about recharge area

RECIRCULATION

An area where rainwater soaks through the ground to reach an aquifer. Recharge areas are defined as zones that consist of water sources seeping within the ground and replenishing aquifers due to non-existing confining layers...Read more about recirculation

REDOX

Shortened term for reduction/ oxidation reactions. Redox reactions are a series of reactions of substances in which electron transfer takes place. The substance that gains electrons is called...Read more about redox

REDUCTION

Reduction is a chemical reaction in which ions gain electrons to reduce their positive valence. This process occurs within one atom throughout the reaction in between two chemicals. Reduction specifically is described...Read more about reduction

REGENERATION

Putting the desired counter-ion back on the ion exchanger, by displacing an ion of higher affinity with one of lower affinity. Regeneration alludes to the restoration of the spent resin ions in order the ion exchange...Read more about regeneration

RESERVE CAPACITY

The reserve capacity is categorized as the additional capacity of purification within wastewater treatment plants and sewage facilities that work to maintain their predicted flows in the future for population growth purposes...Read more about reserve capacity

RESERVOIR

A natural or artificial holding area used to store water. Reservoirs can be categorized as midsurface bodies of natural gas and oil which are kept in fractions of rocks and porous. Reservoirs are mainly used for applications...Read more about reservoir

RESIDUE

The dry solids remain after the evaporation of a sample of water or sludge. Residue is the distillation of liquids which has already been condensed during the distillation process from the vapours...Read more about residue

RESOLUTION

The breaking of an emulsion into its individual component. Resolution within emulsions occurs in the dispersed stage when the liquid is broken down into a lesser degree, while when in the dispersion medium, a large degree is created...Read more about resolution

RESOURCES

Welcome to Pure Aqua’s resource center where you have access to information articles, videos, blogs, and product pages regarding water treatment systems, reverse...Read more about resources

RUN-OFF

The part of precipitation water that runs off the land into streams or other surface water. Run-off exists during times when there are large water streams flowing across the land surface due to rainfall, melting of snow, and other sources...Read more about run off

SAFE WATER

Water that does not contain harmful bacteria, toxic materials, or chemicals, and is considered safe for drinking. Safe water will produce no harm towards any human that comes into contact with it...Read more about safe water

SAFE YIELD

Safe yield is the yearly degree of water that is capable of being extracted from water sources over a specific period of time without diminishing that source’s potential of being organically refilled...Read more about safe yield

SALINITY

The presence of soluble minerals in water. Salinity is referred to as the absorption of salt from land masses and water sources to a degree that begins to harm the natural and developed atmosphere...Read more about salinity

SAND FILTRATION

Sand filtration is a frequently used and very robust method to remove suspended solids from water. The filtration medium consists of a multiple layer of sand with a variety in size and specific gravity...Read more about sand filtration

SATURATED ZONE

The area below the water table where all open spaces are filled with water. The saturated zone is an area that takes in water at the highest level of saturation, which means there is absolutely no extra space that can be added, absorbed or mixed with...Read more about saturated zone

SCALE

The precipitate that forms on surfaces in contact with water as the result of a physical or chemical change. Within water sources, scale is generally responsible for hardness production but is considered safe when consumed...Read more about scale

SCREENING

Use of screens to remove coarse floating and suspended solids from sewage. Screening is utilized at the first stage throughout wastewater treatment plants. The screening takes place for the purposes of eliminating...Read more about screening

SECONDARY TREATMENT

The removal or reduction of contaminants and BOD of effluent from primary wastewater treatment. Secondary treatment is interchangeably used with other terms such as biological treatment since it...Read more about secondary treatment

SEDIMENTATION

Settling of solid particles in a liquid system due to gravity. Sedimentation generally permits the suspended particles to remain outside of the wastewater or water source while it moves across the tank, and provides a certain level of purification...Read more about sedimentation

SEDIMENTS

Soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. Sediments can consist of any sort of particulate substances that can be moved across through the flowing of fluids and ultimately unloaded as a covering...Read more about sediments

SEMI-CONFINED AQUIFER

An aquifer partially confined by soil layers of low permeability through which recharge and discharge can still occur...Read more about semi confined aquifer

SEMIPERMEABLE

A medium that allows water to pass through, but rejects dissolved solids, so that it can be used to separate solids from water. Certain molecules are capable of passing semipermeable membranes...Read more about semipermeable

SEPARATE SEWER

A sewer system that carries only sanitary sewage; no storm-water runoff. When a sewer is constructed this way, wastewater treatment plants can be sized to treat sanitary wastes only and all of the water...Read more about separate sewer

SEPARATION

The isolation of the various compounds in a mixture. Separation is reliant upon the characteristics of the compounds present. If these constituents are made up of different basic or acidic nature and consist of balanced compound separation...Read more about separation

SEPTIC TANK

An underground storage tank for wastes from homes not connected to a sewer line. Waste goes directly from the home to the tank. Septic tanks are generally constructed from fiberglass or concrete materials with both...Read more about septic tank

SETTLEABLE SOLIDS

Those suspended solids in wastewater that will settle over a certain period of time and are removed in that way. Settleable solids generally remain at the bottom of an Imhoff cone which is utilized to determine...Read more about settleable solids

SETTLING

The process of sinking of a substance sinking in water. This occurs when the substance does not dissolve in water and its density is larger than that of water....Read more about settling

SEWAGE CONTAMINATION

The introduction of untreated sewage into a water body. Sewage contamination is a pervasive issue in drinking water and can be very detrimental to the quality, taste, and odor of the water source...Read more about sewage contamination

SEWAGE SLUDGE

Sludge produced in a public sewer. Sewage sludge can be made up of organic and inorganic substances, elevated levels of plant materials, and much lesser degrees of various trace elements, including natural chemicals...Read more about sewage sludge

SEWAGE

Sewage is categorized as a waste fluid in a sewer system. The disposal of sewage is done through transporting sewage via cities and packed areas to wastewater treatment plants or sewage facilities...Read more about sewage

SEWERAGE

The entire system of sewage collection, treatment, and disposal. There are a variety of sewerage facilities that are physically existent in order to manage the flows of sewage such as disposal facilities, pipelines, and lift stations...Read more about sewerage

SLUDGE

A semi-solid residue, containing microorganisms and their products, from any water treatment process. Sludge is brought about through liquefied sedimentary installments that can consist of dissolved solids flowing through...Read more about sludge

SOFT WATER

Any water that does not contain large concentrations of the dissolved minerals calcium or magnesium. The only prevalent ions in large quantities within soft water are sodium ions. Soft water can occur naturally as it does from rainfall...Read more about soft water

SOFTENING

Water softeners are used for the removal of hard ions such as calcium and magnesium from water to reduce hardness. Water softening works by utilizing a process called ion exchange which removes calcium and magnesium from water sources...Read more about softening

SOLIDIFICATION

Removal of wastewater from a waste or changing it chemically to make it less permeable and susceptible to transport by water. Solidification is occasionally referred to as freezing since it converts the matter...Read more about solidification

SOLUBILITY

The amount of mass of a compound that will dissolve in a unit volume of water. Solubility is considered as chemical properties that speaks of the capacity within a certain substance (solute) and its function in dissolving solvents...Read more about solubility

SOLUTE

A solute is a substance that dissolves in other matters, the same as how certain substances dissolve in a liquid, such as water. The most common form of a solute is salt within water and its propensity to dissolve...Read more about solute

SOLVENT

Substance (usually liquid) capable of dissolving one or more other substances, such as gas, solids or other liquids. Solvents require a solute in order to create a solution, and are usually found in greater degrees than solutes...Read more about solvent

SPARGER

Spargers are categorized as devices that present compressed air into a liquid. Sparger systems provide the appropriate quality and number of air to water sources through a combination of tools...Read more about sparger

SPARGING

Sparging is an injection of air underneath water tables for the purposes of alleviating dissolved and volatile organic substances in order to produce aerobic degradation of organic substances...Read more about sparging

SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE

Method to estimate the dissolved solid content of a water supply by testing its conductivity. Specific conductance is labelled as the tool that generates sound, electricity and heat...Read more about specific conductance

SPRING

Ground water seeping out of the earth where the water table exceeds the ground surface. Springs generally are produced from the groundwater stored within aquifers...Read more about spring

STOKE'S LAW

A method to calculate the rate of fall of particles through a fluid, based on density, viscosity and particle size. Stoke’s law states that the force limits a sphere from flowing through fluids with high viscosity and is specifically...Read more about stokes law

SUBLIMATION

The transitions of water directly from the solid state to the gaseous state, without passing through the liquid state...Read more about sublimation

SURFACE TENSION

The elastic-like force in a body, especially a liquid, tends to minimize, or constrict, the area of the surface. Surface tension works by being influenced by the changes of the temperature...Read more about surface tension

SURFACE WATER

Surface water is categorized as a water source that is located over the ground or in other bodies such as the ocean, estuaries, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, streams, creeks, lakes, and rivers. Although the ocean...Read more about surface water

SUSPENDED SOLIDS

Solid organic or inorganic particles that are held in suspension in a solution. Suspended solids are considered detrimental to the quality of your water supply and compromise the taste and safety of drinking water...Read more about suspended solids

SYNERGISM

The combined action of several chemicals, which produces a total effect greater than the effects of the chemicals separately...Read more about synergism

TDS

Total Dissolved Solids. The weight per unit volume of water of suspended solids in a filter media after filtration or evaporation. It can be reduced using reverse osmosis systems or using seawater reverse osmosis...Read more about tds

TERTIARY TREATMENT

Advanced cleaning of wastewater that goes beyond the secondary or biological stage, removing nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and most BOD and suspended solids...Read more about tertiary treatment

THERMAL POLLUTION

Thermal pollution is categorized as the discharge of heated water from industrial processes in receiving surface water, causing death or injury of aquatic organisms. This process is considered harmful due to the discharging of waste...Read more about thermal pollution

THM

Trihalomethanes. Toxic chemical substances that consist of a methane molecule and one of the halogen elements fluorine, bromine, chlorine and iodine attached to three positions of the molecule...Read more about thm

TITRATION

Titration is an assessment method used to ascertain how much of a substance is existent in a water sample by including another substance and measuring how much of that substance must be added to generate a reaction...Read more about titration

TOTAL SOLIDS

All the solids in wastewater or sewage water, including suspended solids and filterable solids. Total solids can include settleable and suspended solids, including dissolvable, which are made up of...Read more about total solids

TOXIC WATER POLLUTANTS

Compounds that are not naturally found in water at the given concentrations and that cause diseases in organisms that ingest or absorb them. Toxic water pollutants are substances that are considered detrimental...Read more about toxic water pollutants

TRANSMISSION LINES

Pipelines that transport raw water from its source to a water treatment plant. These transmission lines are designed to transfer huge quantities of water from the supply...Read more about transmission lines

TRANSMISSIVITY

The ability of an aquifer to transmit water. Transmissivity works in helping to ascertain the rate at which water flows through the unit width of the aquifer and the efficiency of sending radiant energy through in volume...Read more about transmissivity

TRANSPIRATION

The process by which water vapour is released into the atmosphere after transpiring living plants. Transpiration works in helping plants take in water via the roots and then send out water vapor via the pores in the leaves...Read more about transpiration

TREATMENT PLANT

A structure built to treat water or wastewater before discharging it into the environment. As contaminated water flows into plants for treatment, it goes through screens, which work in eliminating suspended substances that can clog pipes or harm equipment...Read more about treatment plant

TRICKLING FILTER

Trickling filters are designed as wastewater treatment units that contain medium material with bacteria. The stream of wastewater is trickled over the medium and the bacteria break down the organic wastes...Read more about trickling filter

TS

Total Solids. The weight of all present solids per unit volume of water. It is usually determined by evaporation. The total weight concerns both dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic matter...Read more about ts

TUBE SETTLER

Device using bundles of tubes to let solids in water settle to the bottom for removal by sludge. A tube settler is comprised of tubular channels that are positioned adjoining to every other...Read more about tube settler

TURBIDITY

Turbidity is a measurement of non-transparency of water due to the presence of suspended matter. The safety of aquatic life, including humans, is compromised with the effects of turbidity...Read more about turbidity

TURBULENT FLOW

A flow that contains may rapid fluctuations. Turbulent flow are liquids and gases and can move in the speed of the point that has consistent changes in both direction and magnitude. The usual locations that turbulent...Read more about turbulent flow

ULTRA-VIOLET OXIDATION

Ultraviolet is a process using extremely short wave-length light that can kill microorganisms (disinfection) or cleave organic molecules (photo oxidation) rendering them polarized or ionized and thus more easily removed from the water...Read more about ultra violet oxidation

UNLOADING

The release of the contaminant that was captured by a filter medium. Unloading is enacted for the purposes of sending back large amounts of dirt and other unwanted impurities back into the system when there is an dynamic flow in conditions...Read more about unloading

UNSATURATED ZONE

The release of the contaminant that was captured by a filter medium. Unloading is enacted for the purposes of sending back large amounts of dirt and other unwanted impurities back into the system when there is an dynamic flow in conditions...Read more about unsaturated zone

UP-FLOW

An upward flow of water. Up-flow filters work in accumulating nutrients, sediments, oil, and heavy metals from stormwater at the same time decreasing maintenance expenses and site footprints...Read more about up flow

UV

Ultraviolet Sterilization. Radiation that has a wavelength shorter than visible light. It is often used to kill bacteria and destroy ozone. Ultraviolet sterilization is considered safe when exposed to humans and possesses very few limitations...Read more about uv

VAPORIZE

Conversion of a liquid into vapour. The evaporation of liquid is done through reducing the temperature of the liquid below its boiling point. It requires a high enough energy to become...Read more about vaporize

VAPOUR

The gaseous phase of substances such as water. Water vapor is largely invisible, and in the off-chances that you notice a foggy, cloudy, or misty texture then it is most likely liquid water and not water vapor...Read more about vapour

VENTURI

A channel that serves the measurement of water flows. Venturi meters are utilized to measure the rate of flow throughout tubes and works in decreasing fluid pressure that comes about when a fluid goes through a narrow portion of the pipe...Read more about venturi

VIRUSES

The smallest life forms known, that are not cellular in nature. They live inside the cells of animals, plants and bacteria and often cause disease. They are made up of a chromosome surrounded by a protein shell...Read more about viruses

VISCOSITY

The syrupiness of water and it determines the mobility of the water. When the temperature rises, the viscosity degrades; this means that water will be more mobile at higher temperatures...Read more about viscosity

VOC

Volatile Organic Compound. Synthetic organic compounds which easily vaporize and are often carcinogenic. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are categorized as natural chemicals that promptly generate water vapors...Read more about voc

WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE

The plan or network for the collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage in a community. Wastewater treatment plants generate wastes that possess several possible pollutants, with reclaimed wastewater being generally high quality...Read more about wastewater infrastructure

WASTEWATER

The spent or used water from a home, community, farm, or industry that contains dissolved or suspended matter. The primary objective of wastewater treatment is to convert raw sewage into sufficient quality water that can be discharged...Read more about wastewater

WATER MONITORING

The process of constant control of a body of water by means of sampling and analyses. Water monitoring plays an integral component in assisting us in determining whether or not the cleanliness standards of our waterways are being met....Read more about water monitoring

WATER POLLUTION

The presence in water of enough harmful or objectionable material to damage water quality. Water pollution is the primary issue that occurs due to water is the reduction in population regarding the aquatic life within these water bodies...Read more about water pollution

WATER QUALITY

The condition of water with respect to the amount of impurities in it. Quality drinking water is important to our health and well-being. Water quality is instrumental to the distribution of water throughout households...Read more about water quality

WATER RECYCLING

Water recycling is using water again for the same or another process step, after a small form of purification is applied. Water recycling in most instances is completed through the utilization of membranes and reverse osmosis...Read more about water recycling

WATER SOLUBILITY

The maximum possible concentration of a chemical compound dissolved in water. The dissolvement of these chemical compounds in water is recorded per specific temperatures. Water solubility states that liquids...Read more about water solubility

WATER STORAGE POND

An impound for liquid wastes designed to accomplish some degree of biochemical treatment. Water storage ponds are utilized in order to maintain water from being exposed to impurities such as pesticides, gasoline, and other unwanted matters...Read more about water storage pond

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

The collection, treatment, storage, and distribution of water from source to consumer. Water supply systems are used in municipal applications for the purposes of withdrawing from water sources and purifying...Read more about water supply system

WATER SYSTEM

Water systems are utilized throughout various water sources in order to produce clean drinking water, or water which can be used in other applications. Different types of water sources include ...Read more about water system

WATER TABLE

The surface of groundwater in the soil. Water tables are important in providing alternative solutions for water distribution for the purposes of sustaining life in some of the most water-scarce parts of the world...Read more about water table

WATERSHED

The surface of groundwater in the soil. Water tables are important in providing alternative solutions for water distribution for the purposes of sustaining life in some of the most water-scarce parts of the world...Read more about watershed

WEIR

A weir is categorized as spillover devices used to measure or control water flows. A weir is helpful in creating an impenetrable barricade around a river for the purposes of elevating the water level against the current...Read more about weir

WELL

A deep hole with the purpose to reach underground water supplies. Water wells are designed to be an uncovering structure that is produced from the ground by way of drilling, driving, digging, and boring...Read more about well